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女生在校学习成绩更好

图片 1

图片 1图形源于:BBC

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and
the gap is widening

在高杏月大学阶段,男孩正被女孩超越,且间距正日趋拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir
Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College,
a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s
a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not
cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership
Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has
a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most
of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet
both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being
left behind by girls.

黄金时代所高级泰语寄宿高校的校长Anthony托Seldon称“那完全决定于他们的大脑、身体和荷尔蒙”。纽约Bronx Leadership
Academy委员长IvanYip称“他们普及以为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前面七个收取费用3.8万日币一年并设有潜水俱乐部;而另叁个为其超过二分之一学子提供午饭补贴,五分之三的学员有特殊传授需求。然则,它们都同生机勃勃致力于消除相同难点:青年男孩远远落后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls,
and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich
world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance
has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about
girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling
copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned
research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading
programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of
generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是二个十N年前不能想像的主题素材。直到19世纪70年间此前,男孩比女孩开销越来越长日子并获得更加高教育,且更有极大可能率从大学毕业。现在,无论是富裕世界依然越多的紧缺国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经怀恋女孩贫乏科学信心的国策制定者们,今后更多时间在强行男孩眼下摇晃《哈利Porter》。Switzerland政党已委托了黄金年代项关于“男孩风险”的商量。澳大那格浦尔(Australia卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)开展了生机勃勃项”男孩,男子,书和比特”的连串。仅仅几代时间内,前叁性格别差别消失,而后黄金时代种性别差距又出新。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the
OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about
endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of
three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are
fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time,
a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study,
girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to
an**extra**year of schooling.

以时尚之都为营地的丰厚世界智库OECD于二月5号发表了意气风发份简报中展现了这种反转。男子在数学领域的主导地位大致会不停。在平均年龄十六虚岁时,男孩超过同年龄女孩四个月。在自然科学领域,男女学子表现相当。但是,在读书领域,女孩一贯维持超越地位,且间隔变得更加大。在这里项讨论所涉及的61个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现非凡。女孩平均比男孩超前三个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that
it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage
boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency
in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this
group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to
drop out of school altogether.

因进一步读书须要注重读写本事,OECD将它看做评估中最要紧的手艺。果真如此,在落到实处数学、阅读和自然科学的底工力量时,年轻男孩比女孩多出五成的战败只怕。在这里个部落的青年人,因无所依靠和无所优秀,而更有望从本校停止学业。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom,
first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old
girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than
the average boy, who spends more time playing video games
and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for
pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are
falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving
up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as
the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要精通为啥男子和女人在教室内显示出那样差异,先从教室之外活动动手。日常15虚岁女孩每周开销5.5时辰去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多一个钟头,他们花费越来越多时光玩电游和上网。3/4的女孩子将阅读作为消遣,而只有50%多点的男人这么做。随着荧屏稳步把眼光从图集挪开,世界上具备地点的阅读率正日益下滑,而男人下落速度越来越快。OECD开掘,在此多少个和平日女人工作日常的男士中,在阅读方面包车型地铁性别差距缩短了一半左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice
as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more
often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls
that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and
policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that
ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,”
says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live
up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

后生可畏上书,男生就期盼快点截至。在告诉中,多于女孩子2倍的男子感觉上课是浪费时间,並且更有的时候迟到。就好像过去教授努力说服女孩子自然科学并不只是男人领域,OECD近来提出爹妈和政策制订者指引男子远隔将忽略学术成就作为男人气概表现的这种主见。Yip校长说:“男孩面对着琳琅满指标下压力。但不幸的是,他们计算在坏行为上不负被人梦想。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when
there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have
long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where
confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends
to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar
with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring
that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives
teachers crazy.

当已经有超级多做事可供未受教育男人选拔时,男孩藐视高校还展现没那么非理性。但是这个日子已经未有。恐怕某个傲然有协理男子学习数学,自信驱使男生当先(但有时候则改为大器晚成种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们纯熟”虚构缩放“这一概念,而那风流浪漫假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩卡塔尔国。但他俩缺乏节制让名师极高烧。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often
marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized
tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a
third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened
up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness
among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a
year, even when they are of equal ability.

或是因为她俩这么令人为难忍受,青少年男孩平常赋予相当的低分数。OECD发掘,男孩在无名测量试验中的表现好于名师评估。在阅读方面包车型客车性别差别减弱了55%;而在数学方面,已抢先的男士将出入拉大。另生龙活虎商量显示,因老师贫乏公平,就算手艺异常。男生也比女子更有望被必要复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers
mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**,
all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some
countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour.
Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school
teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their
own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings.
In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore
still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

导致这种差异对待?大器晚成种恐怕的解释是教师的天赋给与那个礼貌、热心和远远地离开打麻木不仁的学习者更加高分数,而这么些特色在女孩中更为遍布。在部分国家,以至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另风度翩翩种可能是,女子,构成了五分之四的小教的和相近百分之八十的初级中学年老年师,更偏疼她们本身的性别,就如男性上级偏疼男人下属平常。在一些地点在法则中也会有性别主义:新加坡共和国照样允许鞭刑男性,而女人则免于该刑事诉讼法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In
Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys
in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing
girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly
always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour
of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which
have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with
uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion
when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in
reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap
in maths. No country has managed both.

在有个别国家为男孩表现可以提供了条件。在拉美,阅读方面包车型大巴性别差别相对不大。如智利、哥伦比亚(República de Colombia卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru卡塔尔的汉子落后于女人小于别的地点。不过,令人纠葛的是,那总伴随着男子在数学方面当先于女人的出入加大。反过来也建构。女孩与男孩在数学方面表现优秀的冰岛、挪威王国和Switzerland,挣扎于令人眼红的日渐加宽的开卷方面性别差距。自二零零二年OECD最后贰回就此实行的不可胜举考查显示,少数国家男士在翻阅方面蒙受了女人,而在另生龙活虎部分国家女子成功降低了数学方面包车型地铁不一致。但绝非国家成功达成双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few
decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere
(see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and
engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s
enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women
now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that
may rise to 58%.

高级中学级教育之后,女人的超过地位继续维持。直至新近二十几年,男子差不离攻下大学的主流人群,非常是未可厚非与工程领域的高阶课程。但是,随着高教在世界范围的如日方升,女性入学拉长率差不离两倍于男人。在OECD报告明显,女子注册率由1983年的61%上涨至52%,到2025年或许上升至三分之二。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on
campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several,
including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women
than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges
are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque
admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

尽管在少数女子是个外人全的OECD国家,女子数量也再慢慢攀升。与此同期,一些席卷美利坚合众国、United Kingdom和澳国江山,女子比男人人口多于一半。在众多比利时人才公立高校中,性别比例进一层平衡。许多人感觉这个大学的不透明招生规范更加偏疼男人。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time
it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD,
when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had
gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女子化进度如此缓慢,甚至于在非常长日子内未被人发掘。据OECD的Stephan
Vincent-Lancrin称,当二〇〇八年黄金年代份有关报告摘马上,人们“不信任那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to
graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to
study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education,
health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing,
engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women
are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences,
business and law they have moved ahead.

进去高校的女性,相对于他们的男人同僚,更有一点都不小大概毕业,且得到越来越好地培育。可是,男子和女子所选科目标趋向差异。越多地女人选拔教育、健康、艺术和人文学科,而男人更加多选取Computer、工程和小巧科学等科目。在数学方面,女子正长期以来,而在不利、社科、商业和法则方面,她们处于抢先地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education
than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average
number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have
made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women
went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the
point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce
rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself.
These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both
academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50
about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

对峙于其余蓄意的国策,社会变革更方便人民群众于激励女人进入高教。口性格很顽强在艰难险阻或巨大压力面前不屈避孕片和平均育儿数量的猛降,甚至晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女人寻觅职业提供了有援救。随着越来越多女子进入职业情状,歧视变得没那么显然。风度翩翩旦女子被期待全数专业发展时,女孩就开采到上学的入眼。回升的离婚率使得女人意识到自己供养的关键。近日,无论是学业上只怕职场上,世界各省的女孩比男孩表现出更东营想。难以置信,在19世界上半叶,差不离大半U.S.A.专业幸免已婚女子从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna
Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012,
argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not
only**educationally**but increasingly
also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many
countries worry about the**prospect**of a
growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry
women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own
social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will
have**to marry down**or not at all.

那么,女子是还是不是渐渐形成主导性别?出版于二〇一三年的Ranna Rosin的《The End
of Men and the Rise of
Women》中提出,最少在美利坚合资国,女子不仅仅教育上当先,还在生意上和社会上打头。大多国家的政策制订者担心数量稳步攀升的下层阶级的教导程度十分的低的男人的前景前程。女性也应有担心那一点。在过去,女人高高挂起与同阶层或高于本人阶层的男人成婚。若是这种男人很少,大相当多女子只能寻觅下阶层男性或选取不结合。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher
for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America
PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the
return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at
best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better
qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason
is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay
less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows
that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium,
suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their
further education.

据OECD展现,虽不是全体,不过在重重国家,高教投入对女子的报恩超越男子。一家访问收入多少的信用社America
PayScale开掘,女性对于大学文化水平的投资收益率相对于男人来讲,异常低或(在Infiniti情形下卡塔尔国雷同。即使女人完整展现越发,但她俩薪俸水平仅为男人的3/4。主因在于相对于工程或微型机科学等,女人接受教育、人文和社会科学那类薪金很低科目。然而,学术研讨展现相对于男子,女子越来越少的关注薪水,展现了谋求高回报并不是女人追求高教的机要原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain
notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous
and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female
students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of
Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert
themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal
professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women
have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with
their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as
qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality,
ambition and experience come to matter more.

在最高层级的商业贸易和标准领域,女子依旧相当少。女子在全校所表现优势被翻盘。在学园,散文及考试评价是无名氏的,性别因素被制止,而体贴女人不受性别歧视的熏陶。不过,来自于英帝国克兰Field药科高校的Elisabeth
Kelan称,在劳作场馆守旧格局再一次验证本身。同等数量的男性和女子投入经济高校和法律高校,可是,10-15年之后,超多女人选拔了特别干燥的事情路径或花销越多时间陪孩子。与此同不平日间,随着早先习得的资历的主要性慢慢消失而天性、雄心和经历成为更为主要的影响因素,男人在职业层级上稳步攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically
been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time
to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after
40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some
countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia
Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the
story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not
come without big structural changes.

非常长大器晚成段时间以来,流传着意气风发种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学大概职场,女子所占比例相差,因此需求时日去营造通往高层职位的沟渠。可是40年来讲,一些国度结业生人数中女性产生主流,这项论证越来越站不住脚。据帝国理教院法学教师ClaudiaGoldin称,女人崛起的末段环节–平等的报酬和特等专门的学问大概–若不举行急剧结构调治是不会来到。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that
the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and
their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working
life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on
putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find
it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common,
for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and
even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised,
meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay
is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AEENCORE的风行文献中,Goldin女士开掘高质量劳重力中,在劳作生活的10到15年间,男子小时薪赋予女人差距宏大,主要原因在于高收入职业的小幅奖金决计于长日子专门的职业和每一日应对电话为前提。全体来说,男人相对于女子更擅长如此行事。在这里种工作措施遍布的小圈子,如商业和法律,性别工资差别还是超级大。而且,以至短时间离开职业条件也说倒霉产生严重惩罚,意味着阿妈要求提交超大代价。而当职业薪给主要注重工时长度时,就像是配药房,性别薪水差距相当小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms
Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior
politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on
being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life
outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is
at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are
suffering, but unskilled men.

Goldin女士称:某个工作是难以完毕灵活性的,就像那四个首席实行官s、法院开庭审判律师、内科医务卫生人士、银行家和有些老品牌政客们。而除此以外别的专门的学问,报酬并不是在于任何时候待命。同有时间,受过卓越教育且想要脱离工作的男性也会从当中受益。可是,新的性别差别位于薪给范围的另黄金时代端。受苦的绝不女子,而是无手艺的男人。

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in
separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit
more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both
single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the
children to decide which model is preferable.

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and
girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can
reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies.
This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among
pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose
subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher
proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend
girls’ schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly,
boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and
to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects
for girls.

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are
the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5
million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare
their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live
together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally
underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also
able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and
talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to
the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region
also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions –
Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the
trend reversed with boys doing better。

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to
a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to
specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and
career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go
to a boys’ school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of
student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever
type of school they attend.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK,
girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16,
called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to
the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more
active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls
are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for
longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like
studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups
than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by
peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require
a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are
out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should
girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula
need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the
questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女同样

  factor因素

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend转换局面生龙活虎种倾向

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑手党心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula学园课程

  to reflect反映

  小说来源:BBC

见习编辑:王雨欣 主编:赵润琰

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